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Phase I: Cytochrome P-450
• CYP1A1 • CYP2A6 • CYP2E1 • CYP1C19
• CYP1B1 • CYP2D6 • CYP2C9 • CYP3A4
Phase I is the first line of defense in the detoxification of all environmental toxins, including
pesticides, herbicides, pollutants, and solvents, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, as well as
many of the body’s own waste products (including steroid hormones).
Phase II: Conjugation of Toxins and Elimination
Polymorphisms may lead to impaired metabolism of the catecholamine neurotransmitters
(dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and may predispose individuals to anxiety,
ADHD, alcoholism, and rapid cycling in bipolar individuals.
Acetylation (N-acetyl transferase)
• NAT1 • NAT2
NAT detoxifies many environmental toxins, including tobacco smoke and exhaust fumes.
Polymorphisms may result in slow or rapid acetylation, both associated with increased risk of
lung, colon, bladder, or head & neck cancer.
Glutathione Conjugation (glutathione s-transferase)
• GSTM1 • GSTT1 • GSTP1
GST detoxifies many water-soluble environmental toxins, including solvents, herbicides,
fungicides, and heavy metals (eg, mercury, cadmium, and lead). Defects in GST activity can
contribute to fatigue syndromes and many cancers.
Oxidative Protection (superoxide dismutase)
• SOD1 • SOD2
Mutations affecting these antioxidant enzymes can lead to increased free radical activity and
cell damage, and may increase the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.
ANALYTE LIST: COMT V158M CYP 1B1 N453S CYP 1B1 V432L CYP 2A6*2 L160H CYP 2C19*2 2C192 CYP 2C19*3 2C193 CYP 2C9*2 R144C CYP 2C9*3 I135L CYP 2D6*3 A2637 CYP 2E1*5A P2E15 CYP 3A4*17 R162Q CYP 3A4*1B 290AG CYP 3A4*3 M445T CYP1A1*2A MSPI
CYP1A1*2C I462V GSTM1 NAT 1 R187Q NAT 1 R64W NAT 2 G286E NAT 2 I114T NAT 2 K268R NAT 2 R197Q NAT 2 R64Q
SOD 1 A4V
SOD 1 G93A SOD 2 A16V
GSTP1, A104V and A113V
Adrenocortex Stress Profile (ASP)
Turn Around Time: 21 Days